Pinocchio (pronounced [piˈnɔkːjo] in Italian) is a fictional character that first appeared in 1883, inThe Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi, and has since appeared in many adaptations of that story and others. Carved by a woodcarver named Geppetto in a small Italian village, he was created as a wooden puppet, but dreamt of becoming a real boy. Pinocchio is often a term used to describe an individual who is prone to telling lies, fabricating stories and exaggerating or creating tall tales for various reasons.
Pinocchio is known for having a long nose that becomes longer when he is under stress (chapter 3), especially while telling a lie. His clothes are made of flowered paper, his shoes are made of wood and his hat is made of bread (page 16 of Collodi's Le Avventure di Pinocchio). Despite the fact that in Italian the name Pinocchio might be a versione 'baby pine' (a portmanteau of pino, pine, and marmocchio, brat), in fact it means pinecone which is distinctly, probably willfully illogical as the book clearly states that the puppet was made out of cherry wood. The name actually comes from a nickname: Geppetto wryly gave the puppet the name Pinocchio as an omen of good fortune: Ho conosciuto una famiglia intera di Pinocchi [...] e tutti se la passavano bene. Il più ricco di loro chiedeva l’elemosina (chapter 1) (I have known the entire Pinocchio family [...] and all of them managed well. The richest begged). However the surname itself may be derived from the Italian word nocchio, meaning a gnarl or knot in wood. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press. 1989.http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/79506.
Pinocchio and Geppetto are both major characters in the ongoing comic book series Fables, written by Bill Willingham, first published in 2003. Pinocchio briefly appears in the 2001 movie Shrek and has a larger role in the 2004 sequel Shrek 2 and the 2007 sequel Shrek the Third. Pinocchio also appears in two episodes of the animated TV show The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy: "Nursery Crimes / My Peeps" and "Billy Ocean", only this version needs to eat human flesh to become human and is evil.
Japanese manga artist Osamu Tezuka was inspired by this story when he created the popular icon Astro Boy. In addition, the story of Pinocchio was made into an anime television series by Tatsunoko Productions in 1972 as Kashi no Ki Mokku (Mokku the Oak Tree), and again by Nippon Animation in 1976 as The Adventures of Piccolino (Pinocchio was renamed "Piccolino" in this version). Tatsunoko's series was shown on HBO in the United States in 1992 as Saban's Adventures of Pinocchio. The Japanese superhero Kikaider(1972), created by Shotaro Ishinomori, was partly inspired by Pinocchio (and by Frankenstein's monster). A character named "Pino", who was inspired by the Pinocchio character, appeared in the video games Toy Pop (1986) and Wonder Project J (1995).
Pinocchio was the second feature-length animated film made by the Disney company. Shel Silverstein sums up the plot of the Disney version in a poem entitled "Pinocchio" from his book, Falling Up.
In 2002, the original story of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi was illustrated by Gris Grimly. This version of the book gave a new visual style to the classic fairy tale which led to a planned stop motion animated feature co-directed by Grimly and Adam Parrish-King, and produced byGuillermo Del Toro and The Jim Henson Company. Takashi Nakamura's A Tree of Palme (2002) takes the viewer into a darker and more twisted version of Pinocchio (although Steven Spielberg also shows a glimpse of this shattered childhood psyche in his Pinocchioesque character David in A.I. Artificial Intelligence).
Music inspired by Pinocchio and his adventures first appeared in the film version of Pinocchio in 1940, with the most notable tunes from this being "Give a Little Whistle" and "When You Wish Upon a Star". Jazz saxophonist Wayne Shorter composed the tune "Pinocchio" while with the second Miles Davis Quintet; Shorter's composition was recorded on the Miles Davis album "Nefertiti" for Columbia Records in 1968.Cursive released a song that draws heavily on a Pinocchio allegory, entitled "Driftwood: A Fairy Tale," on The Ugly Organ in 2003. The lyrics describe a fairy bringing the boy to life, only for him to drift away. While on tour in Singapore, rapper Kanye West performed the freestyle "Pinocchio Story", comparing himself to Pinocchio in the sense that his own life lacked depth, that he yearns for a simple, family-oriented social life instead of the pressure of fame, and thus he states 'I just wanna be a real boy'. He also mourns the death of his mother, comparing her to Geppetto. The freestyle can be heard as a bonus track on 808s and Heartbreak.